There may be at all times a danger of HIV-positive moms passing the an infection to their kids. However a brand new examine has discovered that widespread antiviral medicine can nearly fully cease this transmission.
The examine, printed within the journal The Lancet HIV, was carried out by researchers from Karolinska Institutet, Sweden. The examine confirmed there was lower than a 2% likelihood of a mom on antiviral therapy passing on the HIV an infection to her kids.
The examine gained extra significance because it was capable of cut back transmission charges even in a low-income nation with a excessive HIV incidence reminiscent of Tanzania.
“HIV transmission from mom to little one can in precept be stopped fully with trendy antiviral medicine. However to date it has not been demonstrated in low-income international locations in Africa with a excessive incidence of HIV an infection,” first writer, Goodluck Willey Lyatuu, doctor and postdoctoral researcher on the Division of International Public Well being at Karolinska Institutet, stated, reported MedicalXpress.
The findings present a shot within the arm for the World Well being Group’s aim of fully stopping the transmission of HIV an infection from mom to little one.
UNAIDS, a UN group, says that the possibilities of kids born to HIV-positive moms in Tanzania, on account of an infection within the womb, throughout childbirth, or by way of breast milk, is 11%. The brand new examine lowers the estimate considerably.
The researchers adopted greater than 13,000 HIV-positive, pregnant ladies, in considered one of Africa’s largest cities, Dar es Salaam, in Tanzania. These ladies have been on antiviral therapy as a part of maternity care between 2015 and 2017.
The ladies and the kids have been adopted for 18 months after beginning, a time when many of the moms had stopped breastfeeding. Surprisingly, solely 159 kids have been discovered to be contaminated with the virus.
Factoring within the margin error, this roughly interprets to a danger of only one.4%.
“It is likely one of the largest cohort research printed from Africa on the danger of HIV transmission from mom to little one the place the newborn is adopted till the top of the breastfeeding interval,” co-author, Anna Mia Ekström, medical professor on the Division of International Public Well being at Karolinska Institutet, stated, based on the outlet.
The danger of an infection was not evenly distributed. It was greater than double in ladies who acquired therapy late in being pregnant or have been at superior levels of HIV. In the identical method, the danger of an infection was discovered to be simply 0.9% in ladies who had already acquired the therapy once they grew to become pregnant.
Whereas the general possibilities of an infection have been discovered to be minimal, Anna Mia Ekström warned that “it’s nonetheless necessary to enhance early HIV analysis, optimize follow-up measures, and provide specialist help to younger moms.”